These betta fish including under family Osphronemidae. They also knew as betta Howong. They originate from upper Kayan (Kajan) and howong drainages in East Kalimantan province, Indonesia. These areas are very remotes and just accessible by small boat.
They usually inhabit isolated streams with clear and flowing water and also live in forest streams with turbid waters in their habitat. Popta described these wild betta fish species in 1905.
Ultimate Wild Betta Unimaculata Care Guide
They can reach body length until 12.6 Cm TL, which they the huge fish among other betta species. The male betta Unimaculata generally has intense blue-green coloration with and/or without iridescence and also may/not having a horizontal band on their body.
While the female betta Unimaculata has pale color body coloration, same as other betta species. But some females maybe has less intense blue-green coloration on their bodies. Female also has the horizontal band on their body.
The male has blue stripes edging in black color on the outside while the spots on the inside. The female usually has pale fin coloration. The males normally grow larger and have a broader head shape than females.
They are rather peaceful fish, but only the males are more aggressive to each other. They can be housed in pairs or community tanks. For keeping a single pair, you should use at least a 10-gallon aquarium, and for a community tank, you can use 20-gallon or larger. If you want to keep them more than a single pair, you should use an aquarium at least a 40-gallon tank.
Like their habitat, they typically inhabit sluggish water, so you should use a soft aquarium filter machine. They also prefer an environment with more hiding areas to add some driftwood, rocks, or tall and dense aquarium plants to the tank.
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Adding some floating aquatic plants like Salvinia natans will give them more happiness because they prefer swimming or chilling around the aquarium’s shady area.
Use aquarium substrate with dark colors such as black sand or soil with dark colors. It will make their color looks very contrasting in the tank. Betta Unimaculata, tending prefers to dim lighting, uses a low-tech aquarium LED lamp.
They can live in an aquarium with having water temperature between 21 – 26 °C, water pH between 5.0 – 7.5, and water hardness between 0 – 179 ppm.
The wild betta Unimaculata is carnivorous. In the wild, they usually hunt some small insects, invertebrates, or zooplankton. But, they also accept dried food like flakes or betta fish pellets. However, feeding some live or frozen food like artemia or bloodworms is necessary to their coloration and growth.
As we know, they can be peaceful fish. Betta Unimaculata can keep together with other peaceful fish like siamese algae eater, kuhli loach, platy, molly, tetra, etc. But you should not keep two or more males betta Unimaculata in the less than 40-gallon aquarium.
They belong to mouthbrooder, same with their cousin’s betta Rubra. Females betta Unimaculata generally initiate spawning. Generally, they spawn near the bottom of the aquarium and toward nightfall.
When they are spawn, the male will wrap the female, and at the same time, she will lay the eggs, and then the male will fertilize them.
After spawn is completed, the male will take over to care for the eggs. It will incubate by the male on his mouth between 10-14 days.
Once the incubation is complete, the male will begin to release the fully-formed fry. At this point, the male can be removed from the breeding tank, and the fry can start to be fed with brine shrimp.